The Odum Library Government Documents Department was established in 1956 as a Selective Federal Depository Library. The Depository presently receives 58% of the Federal publications available through the Federal Depository Library Program. The primary mission of the Depository is to collect, organize, and provide free and unimpeded public access to United States Government publications and Georgia State publications in support of the University's mission and the curricular needs of the students, faculty, and staff at Valdosta State University.

The depository also serves the general public including members of the business and agricultural community, elementary and secondary school communities, as well as referrals from the South Georgia Regional Library. To support this diverse user population, the Depository collects resources in the following broad subject areas: Education; Business and Commerce; Political Science; Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice; Physics, Geology and Astronomy; Agriculture; Health Sciences; Aerospace Studies; History; Demographics; Labor and Occupational Safety.